In Romania education is considered
to be a national priority, the entire educational system being protected by the
Constitution and by organic laws (the Education Law), specialised laws (the Law
on the Accreditation of Higher Education Institutions and Recognition of Diplomas,
the Law on the Statute of the Teaching Staff), governmental decisions and orders
of the Minister of Education and Research.
These legislative acts laid the
foundation for the reform of the Romanian education system and allowed its opening
and upgrading as compared to the educational systems of the highly developed countries
of the world.
The national system, which includes both public and private higher education institutions,
has openness as its main feature, that is the transfer of a student from one educational
form to the other is stipulated by law. The education system is organised on levels,
ensuring the coherence and continuity of instruction, taking into consideration
the age and individual peculiarities.
of the Universities
In Romania higher education is provided in education
and research institutions, universities, institutes, academies, conservatories
and university colleges.
The state higher education sector in Romania comprises
49 state higher education institutions with 324 faculties and other 8 private
higher education institutions comprise several faculties, university colleges,
divisions, departments and small pilot units specialised in researches and micro-production.
The faculty represents the functional basic unit of the higher education institution
and is organised by chairs or by departments. The teaching in a faculty is organised
by specialities, years of study, student series and groups. The faculty includes
the teaching and research personnel, the students and the auxiliary and administrative
personnel. The faculties are individualised by their study programmes and field
The department is a sub-unit governed by the university
Senate or by the Council of a faculty. The department carries out teaching, research,
design etc. The chair is the basic structural unit of the faculty and it includes
the teaching research, design and auxiliary personnel working in a specific academic
Undergraduate education provides two
types of programmes:
Short-term university education (2-3 year programme provided
by the university colleges) courses finalised with diplomã de absolvire
(diploma certifying the completion of studies at a college and the passing of
a relevant examination). According to the Education Law, graduates of these courses
may continue their long-term university education, under the conditions established
by each institution.
Long-term university education (4-6 year programmes provided
by the universities, academies and conservatories) courses finalised with diplomã
de licenþã (university diploma, equivalent to a first degree).
Graduate education offers specialisation or an extension
of the education provided in universities. Graduate study programmes include:
Advanced studies (1-2 years) for university graduates; graduates are awarded a
Master studies (1-2 years) for university graduates;
academic studies (2-3 years) organised by graduate study schools attached to universities
or functioning as autonomous units; the studies are based on inter-disciplinarity
aiming at increased professional specialisation;
Doctoral studies (4-6 years) offered by universities and research
institutes accredited as such; the doctoral courses are organised as day courses
or night courses. The scientific title of doctor granted by the institution is
validated by the National Council for the Attestation of Academic Titles, University
Diplomas and Certificates;
Continuing education university courses, lasting
no more than one year, and addressed to certain categories of employment of those
without a university diploma.
education in Romania has the following forms: regular studies, reduced frequency
courses and Open Distance Learning.
In what concerns certification, there is a wide range of
academic graduate and post-graduate diplomas and distinctions that one can obtain
after studying in Romania:
Certificat de studii - A certificate awarded to
students who have completed their studies in higher education, but have failed
to pass the get their degree.
Diplomã de absolvire a unui colegiu -
Diploma certifying the completion of studies at a college and the passing of the
relevant final examen.
Diplomã de licenþã - University
diploma equivalent degree.
Diplomã de magister/master - Master Diploma.
Diplomã de studii aprofundate - Diploma of Advanced Studies.
de studii (academice) - Diploma of Graduate Academic Studies. This kind of diploma
is awarded by a school of graduate studies, within a higher education institution.
Such schools enroll holders of the first academic degree at the end of a two-three
year graduate study programme.
Diplomã de doctor - Doctoral Diploma (Ph.D.). This is the highest academic
degree awarded in all domains after 4-6 years of study and original research.
It follows the first academic degree (or master's degree) and requires the passing
of examinations and the submission of an original thesis. The holder of a doctoral
diploma is granted the Ph.D. title in the respective field of science or the arts.
Doctor Honoris Causa - An honorary degree awarded by higher education institutions
(by vote of the Senate) to Romanian and foreign prominent figures in science,
technology and culture. It is also occasionally conferred, in recognition of specific
merits, to outstanding national and international public figures.
Recognition of Romanian Diplomas
Romania signed the Convention on the Recognition
of Qualifications concerning Higher Education in the European Region (Lisabona
1997), and at the same time, it is part of the Bologna Process concerning the
implementation of the common European Higher Education area.
Through commitments assumed at the European level, focused on quality assurance,
credit transfers and transparency of educational programmes description, qualifications
(diplomas) obtained in the Romanian Higher Education ensured the academic and
professional mobility of the graduates all over the world.